ONONDAGA LAKE AMBIENT MONITORING PROGRAM
2009 ANNUAL REPORT
ONONDAGA COUNTY, NEW YORK
ONONDAGA COUNTY DEPARTMENT OF WATER ENVIRONMENT PROTECTON
Aquatic, Terrestrial and Wetland Consultants
Lars Rudstam, Ph.D.
Cornell Biological Field Station
A MESSAGE FROM THE COUNTY EXECUTIVE
Onondaga Lake is on the road to recovery.
This report of the 2009 Ambient Monitoring Program carried out by the Onondaga
County Department of Water Environment Protection (DWEP) documents significant
progress toward improving water quality and habitat conditions.
encourage all residents of Onondaga
County to read this
report and to take pride in the value of our investment in infrastructure
As in 2008, the 2009 AMP annual report is a concise summary of
major findings with links to supporting information. This paperless format was
developed to advance two objectives: first, to reach a broader audience, and
second, to continue to find ways to reduce our environmental footprint, through
our commitment to green initiatives. We are confident that this format will
enable more of our County leaders and citizens to become better informed
regarding the condition of Onondaga
Lake and its watershed.
Additional program information, including annual reports from previous years,
can be found on the County web site www.ongov.net/wep
Joanne C. Mahoney
Onondaga County Executive
A MESSAGE FROM THE
COMMISSIONER OF WATER ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION
The Department of Water Environment Protection is responsible
for collecting and treating wastewater from homes and businesses throughout the
County. As Commissioner, I am proud to lead our dedicated staff under a name
that reflects Onondaga County’s firm commitment to
protecting the water resources we all share. The Department is required to
complete an intensive survey of water quality conditions in the Onondaga Lake watershed each year. This
publication is a summary of the findings of the 2009 Ambient Monitoring Program
(AMP). 2009 marked the 40th consecutive year that Onondaga County
successfully completed a monitoring program of Onondaga Lake
and adjacent waters. Results of this long-term monitoring effort are used to
track how Onondaga
Lake is responding to
pollution abatement activities. Current conditions and trends in water quality
and the lake’s biological community are highlighted in
document. Comments on this report are encouraged and may be directed to Jeanne
C. Powers at 315-435-2260 or email JeannePowers@ongov.net
Pastella, P.E., BCEE
Features of this Report
This report presents the findings of Onondaga County’s Ambient
Monitoring Program (AMP) for 2009. The County’s annual monitoring program is
designed to evaluate compliance with water quality standards and trends as
improvements to the wastewater collection and treatment infrastructure are
completed. Each year, the Onondaga
County Department of Water Environment Protection collects extensive water
quality and biological data to characterize Onondaga Lake and its
watershed. This summary report of 2009
conditions provides a synopsis of the extensive data to the many stakeholders
interested in Onondaga
The 2009 report was prepared and distributed as an electronic
document. Key results and supporting tables and graphics are included in the main
document, with links to supporting tables, technical reports and graphics in an
electronic library. The report and supporting files are available on CD and on
the Onondaga County web site www.ongov.net. Throughout the document, the reader will
find hyperlinks to more detailed tables, graphs and reports. Simple definitions of many of the technical
terms are included (roll the computer mouse over a highlighted term). A folder
icon at the end of each section (illustrated below) provides links to the
section of the electronic library where additional materials are archived.
Once in the library of supporting
documents, the reader can navigate back to the main report using web browser
navigation tools. There are more than
500 supporting tables and graphics in the library of supporting materials.
While each hyperlink has been checked, it is possible that some features may
not be enabled on every computer’s
operating system. Feedback on the functionality of the electronic
features of the document is welcome, please contact JeannePowers@ongov.net with comments.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction to the AMP
1.2 Ambient Monitoring Program Design
1.3 Turning Data into Information: Metrics
1.4 Mathematical modeling
1.5 Timeline of Onondaga Lake and Watershed
2. Onondaga Lake and its Watershed
Results: 2009 Water Quality Status and Trends
3.1 Climatic Conditions
3.2 Tributary Water Quality and Annual Loads
Compliance with Ambient Water Quality Standards
Compliance with Metro SPDES Permit
Flows and Loads
Wet and Dry Weather Events
4. Onondaga Lake: 2009 Water Quality Status
4.1 Trophic State Indicator Parameters
Secchi Disk Transparency
Trophic State Index
4.2 Ammonia and Nitrite
4.3 Recreational Quality
4.4 Metro Improvements and Lake Response
5. Biology and Food Web: 2009 Results and
5.4 Zebra and Quagga Mussels
Richness and Diversity
6. Integrated Assessment of the Food Web
7. Progress with Related Initiatives
8. Emerging Issues and Recommendations
LINK TO LIBRARY FILES
OF TABLES AND FIGURES BY SECTION
Table EX-1 Summary
of Metrics, Onondaga Lake 2009.
SECTION 1: Introduction to
Table 1-1. Summary of Current Fish Consumption
Advisories for Onondaga Lake.
Table 1-2 Metro
Table 1-3 CSO
Table 1-4 Data Analysis and Interpretation Plan.
Table 1-5 Summary
of metrics used to evaluate progress toward improvement.
Figure 1-1 Tributary
and Lake Regulatory Classification and Subwatershed Boundaries.
Figure 1-2 Map
of monitoring locations, Onondaga Lake and tributaries.
SECTION 2: Onondaga Lake
and its Watershed
Table 2-1 Morphometric
characteristics of Onondaga Lake.
Figure 2-1 Hydrologic
input to Onondaga Lake, as percent of total.
Figure 2-2 Land Cover Classes, 2001, Onondaga Lake
3: Tributary Results: 2009 Results and Trends
Table 3-1 Percent
of Onondaga Lake tributary sample results in compliance with NYS water quality
Table 3-2 Flow-weighted
average concentration of selected parameters, 2009, Onondaga Lake tributaries.
Table 3-3 Annual loading of selected water quality
parameters to Onondaga Lake, 2009.
Table 3-4 Percent annual loading contribution by
gauged inflow, 2009.
Table 3-5 Tributary and Metro Total Phosphorus (TP)
Loading to Onondaga Lake, pre-ACJ and post-ActiFlo implementation.
Table 3-6 Tributary and Metro Soluble Reactive
Phosphorus (SRP) Loading to Onondaga Lake, pre-ACJ and post-ActiFlo
Figure 3-1 Metro
NH3-N, monthly average discharge compared to permit limit.
Figure 3-2 Metro
effluent compliance for total phosphorus concentration, 12-month rolling
Figure 3-3 Metro
and Tributary Sources of TP to Onondaga Lake, 1998 to 2009.
Figure 3-4 Metro
and Tributary Sources of SRP to Onondaga Lake, 1998 to 2009.
Figure 3-5 Total
phosphorus external loading to Onondaga Lake (Water Year) compared with South
Deep total phosphorus concentrations (summer) in upper waters.
Figure 3-6 Metro
Loading of Ammonia, Nitrite, Nitrate and Organic Nitrogen, 1998‐2009.
Figure 3-7 Onondaga
Lake Ammonia Sources, 1998 and 2009.
SECTION 4: Onondaga Lake:
2009 Status and Trends
Table 4-1 Percent
of Ammonia Measurements in Compliance with Ambient Water Quality Standards,
Onondaga Lake, 1998-2009.
Table 4-2 Nearshore
Secchi disk transparency statistical summary for Onondaga Lake, 2009.
Figure 4-1 Onondaga
Lake Summer Average Total P Concentration (0‐3m), 1998‐2009.
Figure 4-2 Onondaga
Lake Summer Algal Bloom Frequency, 1998‐2009.
Figure 4-3 Onondaga
Figure 4-4 TP
and Chlorophyll-a concentrations,
Onondaga Lake 2007-2009 compared with Oneida and Finger Lakes.
Figure 4-5 Onondaga
Lake Secchi Disk Transparency, January‐December, 2009.
Figure 4-6 Carlson
Trophic State Index (TSI) Onondaga Lake, 1998- 2009.
Figure 4-7 Onondaga
Lake Fecal Coliform Bacteria Abundance, Summer Geometric Mean, 1999‐2009.
Figure 4-8 Onondaga
Lake Fecal Coliform Bacteria Compliance, April – October 2009.
Figure 4-9 Relationship
between TP Loading (all sources) and Onondaga Lake TP Concentration, 1990‐2009.
Figure 4-10 Nitrogen:
Phosphorus Ratio, 1998‐2009.
Figure 4‐11 Onondaga Lake Minimum DO in upper waters (0-3m)
during fall mixing period, 1998‐2009.
Figure 4-12 Comparison of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP)
and nitrate-N concentrations with dissolved oxygen concentrations in South Deep
lower waters of Onondaga Lake during 2009.
Figure 4-13 Three
Rivers System Study Area.
SECTION 5: Biology and
Food Web: 2009 Results and Trends
Table 5-1 2009
Macrophyte Field Survey Results.
Table 5-2 List of Fish Species Identified in Onondaga
Figure 5-1 Reduction
in Onondaga Lake phytoplankton standing crop, 1998 - 2009.
Figure 5-2 2009
Proportional biomass of phytoplankton divisions in Onondaga Lake.
Figure 5-3 Onondaga
Lake Phytoplankton Community Structure and Biomass, February-December 2009.
Figure 5-4 Onondaga
Lake South Deep, comparison of diatoms and silica concentrations in 2009.
Figure 5-5 Average
biomass of zooplankton, proportion of major groups across time.
Figure 5-6 Biomass
of different Daphnia species in Onondaga Lake.
Figure 5-7 Time
trends in average size of all crustaceans from 1999 to 2009 in Onondaga Lake.
Figure 5-8 Average
crustacean zooplankton length (mm) in Onondaga Lake in 2009.
Figure 5-9 Onondaga
Lake Dreissenid Mussel Average Density and Biomass with Standard Deviation,
Figure 5-10 Onondaga
Lake Relative Abundance of Dreissenid Mussels, 2002-2009.
Figure 5-11 Comparison of DELTFM for all fish evaluated
with brown bullhead only.
SECTION 6: Integrated
Assessment of the Food Web
Figure 6-1 Food web effects on water clarity
SECTION 7: Progress with
figures or tables
SECTION 8: Emerging
Issues and Recommendations
figures or tables
SECTION 9: Literature
List of Acronyms
The 2009 Annual Report of
Onondaga County’s Ambient Monitoring
Program (AMP) provides an overview of the
results of the extensive monitoring effort underway to characterize Onondaga Lake and its watershed. Conducted annually since 1970,
the AMP represents an unparalleled investment in long-term monitoring of a
complex aquatic ecosystem.
In 1998, an Amended Consent Judgment (ACJ) between Onondaga County, New York
State and Atlantic States Legal Foundation was signed to resolve a lawsuit
filed against Onondaga
County for violations of
the Clean Water Act. The lawsuit alleged that discharges from the Metropolitan
Syracuse Wastewater Treatment Plant (Metro) exceeded the facility’s permitted discharge limits,
and that overflows from the combined
sewer system (CSOs) were not in compliance with state and federal
requirements. The ACJ obligates the
County to undertake a phased program of wastewater collection and treatment
improvements, monitor water quality response, and report annually on progress
towards compliance. This annual report fulfills the requirement for monitoring
and reporting. The ACJ has been amended four times since 1998 to reflect
changes in regulations, technology and environmental conditions, most recently
in November 2009. Among other
requirements, the November 2009 amendment extends the schedule of required
infrastructure improvements and monitoring through the year 2018.
The AMP is designed to document the lake’s response to
pollution control measures. Samples are collected throughout the entire
watershed to identify sources of materials (nutrients, sediment, bacteria and
chemicals) to the lake. An intensive in-lake monitoring program examines water
quality conditions and the interactions between Onondaga
Lake and the Seneca River.
Data are evaluated for compliance with water
and analyzed for trends. In addition to
the water quality monitoring effort, the AMP examines the nature of the lake
ecosystem by characterizing the species composition and abundance of fish,
phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, aquatic plants and
dreissenid (zebra and quagga) mussels.
discharges of municipal and industrial wastewaters, structural modifications
resulting in altered water levels, loss of wetlands, and runoff from urban and
rural areas have degraded the quality of Onondaga Lake. Contact recreation has been precluded by
elevated bacteria counts, algal blooms from excessive phosphorus and poor water
clarity. Conditions for aquatic life
were compromised by high ammonia and nitrite concentrations, low dissolved
oxygen levels, and lack of habitat. Onondaga Lake’s degraded water quality
resulted from multiple sources of pollution. Increasingly stringent regulations
and major investments by the public and private sectors have reduced the
pollutant inputs to Onondaga
Lake, resulting in
improved water quality and habitat conditions.
light of the lake’s
water quality conditions, the primary focus of
the improvements to the wastewater treatment system has been to provide a
higher level of treatment for ammonia and phosphorus at Metro. Two new
treatment systems have been brought on line to reduce Metro’s discharge of
ammonia and phosphorus to Onondaga
Lake. The Biological
Aerated Filter (BAF) system has resulted in year-round nitrification
(conversion of ammonia to nitrate) of the wastewater. This innovative
technology, which became fully operational in 2004, has resulted in a 98%
decrease in Metro’s
ammonia loading to the lake. Phosphorus removal is achieved using a physical-chemical High-Rate Flocculated
Settling (HRFS) technology, known as Actiflo. The system came on line in 2005
to meet an interim effluent limit of 0.12 mg/L of total phosphorus. This technology has resulted in an 86%
decrease in Metro’s
total phosphorus loading to the lake. As part of the November 2009, fourth
stipulation to the ACJ, the total phosphorus discharge limit from
Metro will be revised downward to 0.10 mg/L, effective in November, 2010. In
addition to these improvements focused on ammonia and phosphorus, the
technology employed for disinfecting Metro effluent has been upgraded from
chlorination/dechlorination to an ultraviolet disinfection system.
2009 results document the continued significant improvements in Onondaga Lake brought about by these reductions
in ammonia and phosphorus inputs from Metro. Water quality has improved
dramatically; nutrient levels are reduced and dissolved oxygen has increased.
No algal blooms were evident; the lake water was generally clear and
aesthetically appealing. Total phosphorus concentrations averaged 17 µg/L over
the summer of 2009 in the lake’s upper waters, comparable to conditions in nearby Oneida Lake and several of the Finger
Lakes. The summer of 2009 marks the second consecutive year that
the total P concentration in Onondaga Lake waters has complied with the state’s guidance value
of 20 µg/L, which was established to protect recreational uses and drinking
water supply. Bacteria counts in the Class B segment of the lake shoreline
remained within limits set for water contact recreation. Ammonia N concentrations have been in full
compliance with NYS standards in the lake’s upper waters since 2004, and at all
water depths since 2007.
water allows light to penetrate deeper into the lake, and fosters the
proliferation of macrophytes (rooted aquatic plants and bottom-dwelling algae)
in nearshore shallow waters, to a water depth of six meters. The macrophyte community has also become
more diverse, as more species of plants have colonized the nearshore waters of
the lake. As these macrophyte beds have
spread around the perimeter of the lake, they have brought improved habitat
conditions. The populations of gamefish
such as largemouth and smallmouth bass have increased steadily since 2000.
2009 report highlights an expanded review of the lake’s fish community, tracking
changes over a full decade of AMP biological
monitoring (2000 –
2009). Overall, there has been an increase in
the quantity and quality of habitat, both littoral and pelagic, available to fish species. This has resulted in a slight increase in the
number of species present and a more even distribution of fish throughout the
lake. Many fish species, particularly
those associated with vegetated habitats, are also increasing in
abundance. The aquatic food web within
the lake continues to include new species, both native and non-indigenous
(exotic), with increasingly complex pathways of material and energy transfer
among the life stages of the biota. This increasing complexity with regard to
energy sources and energy flow results in an ecosystem that may be more
resilient to environmental stress. The
results of the 2009 AMP indicate that this is an ongoing process and that more
changes are likely to occur. As lake
water quality continues to improve, resulting in more diverse and higher
quality habitat conditions, increases in aquatic species diversity, abundance, and interrelatedness can also be expected.
of streams flowing into Onondaga
Lake also exhibit
degraded water quality and habitat conditions. The ACJ has required investment
in improvements to the wastewater collection infrastructure as well as at
Metro. These improvements are improving water quality and habitat conditions in
segments of the lake tributaries affected by combined sewer overflows. Four
strategies have been employed to eliminate wet weather discharges from the
combined sewer system; these methods include separating sewers, constructing
regional treatment facilities, capturing floatable materials and maximizing
system storage capacity. During 2009, County facilities and other urban areas
began to implement green infrastructure solutions to help manage urban storm
runoff. Green infrastructure encourages infiltration, capture and reuse of
storm runoff before it enters the sewer system. By preventing storm water
runoff from entering the combined sewers, more capacity is available for
sanitary sewage flow to reach Metro for treatment. The fourth stipulation
includes specific requirements and milestone dates for capturing an increasing
percentage of the annual stormwater volume. A “Save the Rain” initiative is
underway to educate watershed residents about ways to capture and use rain water.
quality conditions in the Seneca
River during 2009 were
comparable to those measured in previous years. Although the proliferation of
dreissenid mussels continues to affect water quality conditions, relatively
high stream flows during the summer of 2009 prevented prolonged conditions of
low dissolved oxygen. Ammonia and nitrite concentrations in the monitored
segments of the Seneca
River were in compliance
Onondaga County Department
of Water Environment Protection, in consultation with NYSDEC and the Onondaga
Lake Technical Advisory Group, has developed a suite of metrics to help organize and report on the extensive AMP
data set each year. These metrics relate to the lake’s designated “best use”
for water contact recreation, fishing and protection of aquatic life. The 2009
results (Table EX-1) document substantial progress toward attaining the
designated uses in Onondaga
Table EX-1. Summary of 2009 Onondaga Lake Conditions.
Suitability for Water Contact
Fecal colilform bacteria abundance
Met NYSDEC standards for water
contact recreation in Class B segments (200 cfu/ 100 mL, geometric mean of at
least 5 samples/month)
Class B segments of the lake
exhibit water clarity and bacteria levels that would support swimming,
boating, waterskiing and other types of contact recreation. Class C segments
of the lake, which are close to the major tributaries, periodically exhibit
elevated bacteria and reduced water clarity conditions after storms.
Secchi disk transparency
Met NYS Dept. of Health swimming
safety guidance value (1.2 m water clarity) for water contact recreation in
Class B segments
Secchi disk transparency
Average June – Sept Secchi disk,
South Deep (mid-lake station): 3.2 m
phosphorus (total P) concentration in the lake’s upper waters during summer
(June- Sept) 2009 was 17 ug/L, within the NYSDEC guidance value of 20 ug/L
established to protect the aesthetic quality of lakes and ensure their
suitability for recreational use.
low total P resulted in low algal abundance and clear water. The lake was
free of nuisance algal blooms, and cyanobacteria abundance was very low.
Total phosphorus in the upper
waters, June – Sept
– Sept chlorophyll-a @ South Deep
(mid-lake station): 5.9 ug/L
algal abundance throughout the entire recreational period, no blooms
Summer average TP:
Abundance of cyanobacteria
<1% of the algal community
was comprised of cyanobacteria
Aquatic Life Protection
Measured in-lake concentrations,
year-round, all depths
100% of measurements met NYS
standards, all depths
The 2009 water quality
conditions fully support a diverse warm water aquatic biota. Prior to the ACJ
improvements to the wastewater collection and treatment system, elevated
concentrations of ammonia and nitrite N, and low concentrations of DO during
fall mixing, were measured in Onondaga Lake. These water quality parameters
are now in full compliance with ambient water quality standards established
to protect even the most sensitive species and life stages.
Measured in-lake concentrations,
year-round, all depths
100% of measurements met NYS
standards, all depths
Dissolved oxygen (DO)
In-situ buoys and frequent field
profiles during fall mixing (turnover), when historically conditions in Onondaga Lake have been most stressful to
7.2 mg/L average DO during fall
mixing, minimum 6.9 mg/L
Sustainable Recreational Fishery
Cover and density of aquatic
Deep water dissolved oxygen
during stratified period
Approximately 50% of the
littoral zone exhibited dense macrophyte growth.
The littoral zone is defined as the nearshore
area where light reaches the sediment surface and is thus suitable for the
growth of rooted aquatic plants.
Summer anoxia in hypolimnion
Coverage in this range provides
high quality habitat for fish reproduction and rearing; current conditions
are near-optimal for smallmouth and largemouth bass.
Lack of well-oxygenated cold
water limits habitat for resident cold water fish community.
Reproduction of target species:
· bass and sunfish
· yellow perch
· black crappie
· rock bass
· walleye and northern pike
· bass and sunfish
· yellow perch
· rock bass
· black crappie
· northern pike
Fish reproduction for several
target species has not been observed in the lake. Adult populations of these
species are stable and, in some cases, increasing. The lack of suitable
spawning habitat, not water quality, appears to be the limiting factor in
fish reproduction in the lake. Restoration of habitat is underway as part of
the Honeywell lake cleanup project.
Fish community structure
Percent of fish species
intolerant or moderately intolerant of pollution
Most of the Onondaga Lake
fishes are warm water species, and are relatively tolerant of pollution.
Consequently, the percentage of fish species intolerant or moderately
intolerant of pollution is unlikely to exhibit a large increase in the
1. Introduction to the AMP
The 2009 Annual AMP report has been prepared and submitted
to the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) to
comply with a judicial requirement set forth in the 1998 Amended Consent
Judgment (ACJ) between Onondaga County,
New York State and Atlantic
States Legal Foundation. The ACJ, signed in 1998, has been modified four times,
most recently by stipulation in November 2009. The ACJ
requires a series of improvements to the County wastewater collection and
treatment infrastructure, and an extensive monitoring program to document the
improvements achieved by these measures. Onondaga County Department of Water
Environment Protection monitors the quality of Onondaga
Lake, the lake tributaries, and a
segment of the Seneca
River as part of the
Ambient Monitoring Program (AMP); the program is focused on evaluating
compliance with ambient water quality standards, the nature of the aquatic
habitat, and trends toward improvement.
The NYSDEC is responsible for managing water resources
throughout NY State. As part of this responsibility, NYSDEC classifies surface
waters, including lakes, rivers, streams, embayments, estuaries and groundwater
with respect to their best use.
Monitoring results are evaluated on a regular basis to determine whether
designated uses are supported, and if not, the factors precluding use
Lake was included on the
state’s inaugural listing of impaired waters in 1998 due to its elevated levels
of ammonia, phosphorus and bacteria, and for its low concentrations of
dissolved oxygen (DO) in the upper waters during fall mixing. The NYSDEC most
recent listing of impaired waters includes several
segments of tributaries to Onondaga
Lake. Waterbodies are
placed on this list when there is evidence that water quality conditions are
not in compliance with applicable standards, and/or the water bodies do not
support their designated use.
Water flows to Onondaga
Lake from a large land
area drained by multiple tributaries, as illustrated in Figure 1-1. Several
outfalls of treated municipal and industrial wastewater and stormwater also
flow into the lake; Tributary 5A and the East Flume flow into Onondaga Lake
along its western shoreline, and Metro effluent enters the lake at the southern
shoreline. The locations of these three inflows are shown in Figure 1-2.
Lake and its tributaries are
currently classified to include Class B and Class C waters. The best usages of Class B waters are primary and
secondary water contact recreation and fishing. Primary water contact
recreation includes activities that immerse the body in the water, such as
swimming; secondary water contact recreation includes activities without full
immersion, such as boating. In addition, Class B waters shall be suitable for
fish, shellfish, and wildlife propagation and survival. The best usage of Class
C waters is fishing. These waters shall also be suitable for fish, shellfish and
wildlife propagation and survival. Class C waters shall be suitable for primary
and secondary water contact recreation, although other factors may limit the
use for these purposes.
For many years, Onondaga Lake did not support its designated uses
due to excessive discharges of municipal and industrial wastewaters and
uncontrolled storm water runoff. Swimming was banned in 1940 due to elevated
bacteria counts and poor water clarity.
Conditions for aquatic life were compromised by high ammonia concentrations
and low dissolved oxygen. Fishing was
banned in Onondaga
Lake in 1972 because of
mercury contamination. The ban was lifted in 1986 and modified into a “catch
and release fishery”; that is, recreational fishing was permitted but
possession of lake fishes was not. Further modifications to the fish
consumption advisories and regulations have occurred over the years, and there
is no longer a blanket restriction on possession of all fish. The current advisory sets forth consumption limits on specific species, and
includes the warning that women under age 50 and children under age 15 should
not consume fish from Onondaga
Lake. Everyone else is advised to eat no walleye of any size, nor largemouth or smallmouth
bass over 15 inches. New in 2010 is the advisory to not eat any carp, channel
catfish or white perch from Onondaga
Lake. The specific advisory for Onondaga Lake
also applies to tributaries and connected waters if there are no barriers to
passage, such as dams or falls.
1-1. Summary of Current Fish Consumption Advisories for
bass and smallmouth bass over 15" and walleye
channel catfish and white perch
fish not listed
up to one meal per month
bullhead and pumpkinseed
up to four meals per month